Atacama virtual: English
www.geovirtual2.cl

History of mining - Atacama Region, Chile

Scientific discoveries

Mining 1830 - 1920
W. Griem, 2017
Ammonite de Burmeister
Spirifer de Darwin

Modelo de Chañarcillo de Henwood

 Introduction to mining history 1830 - 1920

español / deutsch / english

But not only technical progress is important. Great successes have also been achieved in the scientific field:

Scientific discoveries between 1830 and 1920:

The natural sciences succeeded in this time a veritable avalanche of new discoveries and new knowledge. The sciences in general were in a state of radical change throughout this period. Mainly one moved away from a mostly descriptive science into an analyzing and modern science. Now models were designed (and discarded), theories developed and more complex contexts were discussed.  

Many scientists have now also used the opportunity to travel to other areas to gain new insights. South America was a particularly interesting target in biology and geology and, of course, in the social sciences. This "new" continent offered the early scientists a great opportunity to identify new species, fossils or minerals, for example. Not only was the new always interesting:  Also the analogy of discoveries with European specimens was also of scientific interest.


Especially the English researchers such as LEYELL (1830: LEYELL Ch. Principles of Geology) and DARWIN: 1831-36 Darwin's expedition to South America. 1859 he published "On the Origin of Species" which is based on his research from previous years. 1871 Darwin publishes "The Descent of Man".    

In 1873 Dana describes the Geosynclinal theory: An attempt to explain the geology of mountain formation in a universal model. He also ends the belief that mountains were created by catastrophic processes.

In 1897 Marie Curie describes large parts of the phenomenon of radioactivity. Rutherford first succeeded in 1905 in carrying out an absolute age dating, which resulted in an earth age of more than 2 g. a. (2 billion) years. It should be noted that the vast majority of geoscientists had assumed that the values at that time were considerably lower. Einstein discovered the theory of relativity (E= m X c2) in 1905.

Alfred Wegener published the Continental Drift Theory in 1912. This never found great affection in its time. But sixty years later, the old geosynclinal theory was superseded.

In Chile, especially in the Atacama region, the presence of some world-renowned scientists of that time should be emphasized. Especially DARWIN, DOMEYKO, PHILIPPI and GAY visited the region to get new impulses for their research. Not so well known scientists such as HENWOOD (Geology of the Chañarcillo deposit) and many others also show a lively scientific activity in this region.

 

Literature and Links
Bibliographical reference

Link:
Muy interesante:
Historia de la ciencia "Timeline" (en inglés) - excelente!

Literatura:
PHILIPPI, RUDOLPH AMANDUS (1860): REISE DURCH DIE WUESTE ATACAMA AUF BEFEHL DER CHILENISCHEN REGIERUNG IM SOMER 1853-54 UNTERNOMMEN UND BESCHRIEBEN. VON DR... NEBST EINER KARTE UND XXVII TAFELN HALLE Eduard Anton 1860

DARWIN, CH. (1876): Geological observations on the volcanic islands and parts of South America visited during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle. - 2. Edition,  Smith,  Elder & Co.; London.

Henwood, W.J. (1871):  On the Mining District of Chañarcillo in Chili. - Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall; 8:1, pp. 169-153.

Simonin (1867): La Vie Souterraine Du Les Mines et les Mineures" (Paris 1867)

Mining Atacama
History of Atacama

Picto-Literatura-Atacama

History of mining 1830-1920
Intro epoch 1830-1920
Technical innovations
Scientific innovations
Social conscience
Educational impulse
Mine safety
Globalization
Records of the period::
Gilliss: Apires and barreteros
Work conditions of miners
Los Mineros (Tornero 1872)
Apires y barreteros - Tornero

next page in geovirtual

General Geology:
History of Geosciences

Mining
Historical sketches mining
Chapter "History of Geology"
Historia de las geociencias
Mining history of Atacama
Mining from 1830 to 1920
List of minig districts of Atacama

Mining in Atacama
Chañarcillo
Tres Puntas
Carrizal Alto
Cerro Blanco
Lomas Bayas
Cabeza de Vaca

Visitors and scientists
List of visitors
R.A. Philippi in Atacama
Paul Treutler in Atacama
Charles Darwin, Atacama (1835)
Ignacio Domeyko y Copiapó
Kunz en Copiapó
Hugo Kunz en Chañarcillo
Gilliss Mineros en Chañarcillo

Additional information
Timeline Atacama
Mining history of Atacama
The railroad history of Atacama
Cartas y Mapas de Atacama
Cartas históricas de Atacama
Listado de personajes de Atacama

Others
The railroad history of Atacama
History of Atacama
Mining history of Atacama
Geología Atacama
Climate of the Atacama Region
Virtual viewpoint Atacama

www.geovirtual2.cl

Any new publication not authorized by the authors is expressly prohibited. This applies in particular to electronic publications:  Usage guidelines.
Previous page in geovirtual. cl History of Atacama Mining - Content Atacama Region
History of Atacama
next page in geovirtual
Linea plateada en www.geovirtual2.cl

www.geovirtual2.cl
Geology (Spanish)
Apuntes
Apuntes Geología General
Apuntes Geología Estructural
Apuntes Depósitos Minerales
Apuntes Exploraciones Mineras
Periodos y épocas
Módulo de referencias - geología
Índice principal - geología
Virtual museum
Virtual Museum: First page
Recorrido geológico
Colección virtual de minerales
Sistemática de los animales
Historia de las geociencias
Minería en ilustraciones históricas
Fósiles en dibujos históricos
Autores de trabajos históricos
Índice principal - geología
---
Images of Chile and Atacama
Atacama Region, Chile
Journey to Atacama / Atacama sightseeing places
History of Atacama
Mining history of Atacama
Geología de Atacama, Chile
The railroad history of Atacama
Flora Atacama
Animals of the Atacama Desert
Virtual viewpoint Atacama / Atacama en b/n
Road - maps / Imágenes 3-dimensionales
Clima de la Región Atacama
Links Atacama, Books & Collection of Books
List of names and places of Atacama
sitemap - list of all files - schematic content - Information site geovirtual.cl



geovirtual2.cl /contenido esquemático / Entrada del Museo virtual / History of Atacama / Mining Atacama / Mining from 1830 to 1920
Mining history of Atacama, Chile
© Dr. Wolfgang Griem, Chile - all rights reserved  (Mail a Wolfgang Griem Uso de las páginas de geovirtual.cl y geovirtual2.cl)
Published: 7.10.2017; updated: 7.10.2017, 15.7.2018
Mail a Wolfgang GriemMail, contact
Ver el perfil de Wolfgang Griem en LinkedInSee perfil Wolfgang Griem
Todos los derechos reservados
Any new publication not authorized by the authors is expressly prohibited. This applies in particular to electronic publications:  Usage guidelines.
© Wolfgang Griem (2005, 2009) - Todos los derechos reservados - alle Rechte vorbehalten - all rights reserved
KW geolog, soluciones en geología y minería - Atacama
K&W GEOLOG